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Montenegrin is a standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language. It was recognized as the official language of Montenegro, the youngest of the autonomous Yugoslav successor states, in 2007. Montenegrin is also spoken in neighboring countries such as Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo and Albania.

Historically, the language spoken by the people of Montenegro had been called Serbian. In fact, many people in Montenegro still claim Serbian as their native language. Exact numbers of how many people speak Montenegrin are unavailable due to minimal differences between these two languages.

From a philological standpoint, the status of Montenegrin remains under debate. While some believe it has always been an autonomous language, others insist that it is nothing more than a regional dialect. In any case, speakers of Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian and Montenegrin can communicate with each other without problems.

Both the Latin and the Cyrillic script are used in Montenegro, although the popularity of the Latin alphabet is increasing.